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Seckler-Hudson provides a list of twelve factors which must be considered in decision-making: (i) Legal limitations; (ii) Budget; (iii) Mores; (iv) Facts; (v) History; (vi) Internal morale; (vii) Future as anticipated; (viii) Superiors; (ix) Pressure groups; (x) Staff; (xi) Nature of programme; and (xii) Subordinates. As such the administrator has to be content with satisfactory, good enough alternatives. A decision is organizationally rational if it is oriented to the organizations goals, it is personally rational if it is oriented to the individuals goals. Where specialist skills are required, this can be a big issue. It is consciously rational to the degree that the adjustment of means to ends is a conscious process. Pressures from Ministers, Members of the Legislatures, political party chiefs, workers unions and several other official and non-official organisations are exerted on the officials. Predilection is a mental preference of a favourable predisposition towards a particular issue or matter or person. Similarly, the techniques of decision-making cannot be learnt by reading literature on the subject alone; it has to be practiced. However, the difference between administrative man and economic man is one of relative degree because under some conditions, satisficing may be maximizing, whereas in other conditions, satisficing and maximizing are poles apart. This hardens the attitude of administration towards public which is not in any way a healthy development. They are difficult to reverse if an error of judgment is made due to the costs of relocation. According to him rationality is limited because of incompleteness of knowledge, lack of perfect anticipation and other psychological reasons.
There can develop a general bias also as most of us have developed against the police in our country. Third, we have to see whether the act or decision of an authority can be justified before an impartial tribunal or not. It is better to merge than to get acquired. He equates Administration with decision making. Marx It would be difficult in a large-scale organisation to point to a single decision of some consequence that is reached without being part of a specified operating method, pinned down by checks and balances, reviews and concurrences, supporting fields and staff papers. What is its significance or impact for a business? Amenities and infrastructure such as water supply, power supply, good road network and security are things to consider when locating your business. In the words.M. The job involved three kinds of activities: (i) Routine Communication: They were to communicate to relevant clerks information on the current inventory levels in various warehouses. Some economy favor capitalists and others are driven by socialism; where the government controls all businesses. Bias is generally invisible; it travels on wings which cannot be seen except when it is openly accepted as part of policy by an organisation of agency or government.
In this connection, the activities of Organisation and Management should be speeded. It cannot help the general public to always look to the officials through coloured glasses. Brainstorming is an essential tool that can be used to improve a businesss productivity. For others, it is a relatively minor decision. Gender discrimination negatively impacts on productivity and performance. We must admit that the old bias we had against the backward classes is almost disappearing today. It is usually seen that in a large-scale organisation, there are several problems, each looking more urgent than the other.
However, the topics above should give you a quick head-start, and you are free to business location decisions essay take one and make it yours. Advertisements: Here is an essay on Decision-Making for class 9, 10, 11 and. Remember that for your business to succeed, you must make it easy for customers to find your product. However, you should never panic or feel overwhelmed when asked to do such a thing. (But) the right decision must meet a higher test. Availability of basic infrastructure. Now why am i taking my time to tell you this? It may be emphasized that despite the recent advances in decision-making theory and decision-making studies, it has not been possible to ensure complete rationality in decision-making. Free trade zones, international free trade zones and trade fair centers are also good places to site your business because it is accessible and normally receives wide publicity.
The main aim of choosing a business location is to achieve a balance between three related objectives: The costs of the operation, the customer service that the business wants to provide. (c) Elimination of Bias: The word bias is used almost as a filthy word in the dictionary of administration but actually this should not. It is deliberately rational to the degree that adjustment of means to ends has been deliberately brought about (by the individual or by the organisation). In other words, bias or predilection should not enter in decision-making. Although the announcement about a decision may come from a particular individual in the administration, it should be remembered that decisions are not arrived at as quickly and as speedily as lightning makes its frightening sound in the cloudy sky. Second, we have to find whether decision has been taken subjectively or objectively. The factors that influence the choice of business location can be divided into two broad kinds: The factors that influence the choice of business location can be divided into two broad kinds: Supply factors, these are mainly concerned with. Bias should not be confused with unethical acts such as favouritism, corruption, nepotism, etc. Export processing zones, locating your business in an export processing zone may be a smart choice for you especially if are an exporter.
The situations wherein bias can find a convenient place are: (i) Where the official has the discretion to decide; (ii) Where there are no established procedures, rules and norms; (iii) Where the authority has both executive and judicial functions; (iv) Where. Bias is conscious or deliberate when an individual or an agency willingly develops it as part of policy; it is unconscious when it develops without the willing response from the individual or agency. Provision of equal opportunities for employees. As a final note, i want to stress that product accessibility is directly hinged on the location of your business. Should the health effects of cigarettes be ignored business location decisions essay because of its monetary value? Much depends on the nature of decision to be taken and the nature of agency taking. Among these others the notable thinkers are Cyert and March, Chamberlain, Joel Dean, and.A. There already exist several provisions and safeguards for the eradication of bias in decision-making but still we can mention a few more which can help officials in arriving at rational decisions. Industrial areas are areas mapped out specifically for commercial purposes especially manufacturing firms.
There are many social, economic and organisational variables that influence the degree to which satisficing becomes maximizing. Profit-oriented business owners often infringe on the quality of their products or services. Every aspect (from research, topic selection, note-taking, editing, proofreading, etc.) matters and the need to exercise caution while writing one. There is also, an urgent need to educate our public. He projects his values to others and often falsely assumes that groups either within or outside their own organisations share the same values as he does. Joining a public union should be a choice.
Remember, when you write something which is interesting to you, your audience will business location decisions essay also be interested in what you wrote. He further points out that a decision may be called objectively rational if in fact it is the correct behaviour for maximizing given values in a given situation. (iii) Institutional and Personal Factors: There are institutional limitations which circumscribe decision-making. The whole procedure is circumlocutory and dilatory and it checks quick decisions. Many businesses need to be located where customers find it quick, easy and cheap to access the service being provided. Rentals can vary enormously depending on the location and the facilities provided. Essay on the Factors of Decision-Making. A location might tick many other boxes, but if it provides limited scope for expansion then it might be rejected. Labor turnover is an appropriate measure of company loyalty.
The type of product or service your business offers and the status of the customers will play a vital in your choice of small business location. All this factors were what i considered before paying for the office space. A business needs business location decisions essay to be close to its source of supply if the cost of transporting raw materials is high or difficult (e.g. It may, however, be mentioned that the top administrator is a person who must have a final say, who must ultimately give the final word. The limits of human mind cannot make exact predictions of future events and consequences of various alternatives.
In his analysis of decision-making, Simon employs two termsprogrammed decisions and un-programmed decisions. In his own words In preliminary experiment, subjects were asked business location decisions essay to handle a relatively simple administrative job. An insurance company call center will need many staff, but the labor costs of a nuclear power station will be a very small proportion of its total costs. And certainly in retailing, if you get the location wrong, it can have a serious and often disastrous effect on the business. It is usually seen that even Ministers, when faced with public repercussion, pass the buck to the Cabinet to avoid personal responsibility for their decisions. In some certain regions, heavy duty manufacturers are forced by the government to site their companies in these industrial areas. In the words of Seckler-Hudson, decision-making in government is a plural activity.
On the other hand, the administrative man: (i) In choosing between alternatives, tries to satisfy or business location decisions essay look for the one which is satisfactory or good enough; (ii) Recognizes that the world he perceives is a drastically simplified. Combining these statements you get a decision set the time and place of attack value statement Attack successfullyis a value statement of the first order. In our country too, this clause is getting well established. The fact statement is: An attack is successful only when carried out under conditions of surprise. Common experience reveals that some individuals are willing to make choices and to abide by the consequences. If we are developing a constructive bias, as for example, bias in favour of preferential service to the Jawans or to their widows or bias in favour of backward classes, it is a healthy bias and need be developed and acquired. Before setting the paper, the paper-setter should inform the Registrar by name, if he is the author of a book or booklet on the subject and the standard for which the book can be utilised. A human being will choose an alternative which fulfills certain satisficing conditions or which satisfies in order to achieve as much maximization as possible.
This is what usually happens with most of us and in most of the cases. Some customers associate a product business location decisions essay with a certain area and prefer to buy from there (e.g. Their effectiveness can be measured in terms of their action-orientation and goal-directed behaviour as well as the amount of efficiency with which decisions are taken. (iii) Lengthy Procedures: Thirdly, decisions are delayed because of the lengthy procedures and other formalities attached to arriving at a decision. List of 10 topics of business ethics. Probability calculations are neither frightening nor mysterious to him. This type of organisation is very useful where the agency exercises quasi-legislative or quasi-judicial powers or where such matters like the recruitment to public services are involved. Through the application of these tests, we can make some rough estimate as to whether a decision is free or not from bias. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on Decision-Making especially written for school and college students. The relative importance of these as a locational factor depends on whether the business is capital or labor intensive. To" a University regulation No person shall be appointed as paper-setter in any paper for an examination, if any of his son or her close relations intends to appear at that examination in that paper-the term close relations includes wife, husband. Government grants and other incentives are also often available to reduce the land costs of locating in poorer regions.
Such publicity is very important for the regulatory activities of administration. Virtual businesses will be more profitable in the future. Leadership can be developed and acquired from learning, self-awareness, and self-improvement. It is always best to get the location decision right first time. Of course, all decisions must be taken rationally and not emotionally or impulsively. On the other hand, value is an expression of preference. According to him, decision-making involves choice between alternative plans of action and choice in turn involves facts and values. Essay on the Characteristics of Decision-Making. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Many small business startups, in order to reduce expenditure usually settle for a cheap location. Employers should make reporting channels easily accessible for their laborers. No official should be allowed to decide on matters in which he has any interest, pecuniary or non-pecuniary. Answering this question will help you determine the best area to locate your business.
Official bias is developed as a part of policy and is inherent in the duty imposed on authority whereas it becomes personal bias when that authority uses it in favour of, or against, some individual or groups of individuals. Even in ordinary life, to do or not to do is one of the most important riddles that an individual faces before leaping to action. Sexual harassment within company premises. Opinion is veering round to the acceptance of the premise that intellectuals make no good administrators because they lack the capacity to make decisions. Make a case to support paternity leaves for fathers. To maximize profits, companies must exploit labor. Characteristics of Decision-Making: The following characteristics of decision may be noted: advertisements: (i) Decision-making is a process of selection and the aim is to select the best alternative; (ii) Decision is aimed in achieving the objectives of the organisation; (iii) Decision-making. However, remember that your article must also be relevant to the views and issues of the day or else people will ignore it and consider it old. (iii) General Planning: They were to suggest any other changes in procedure that might be appropriate. Home Essay Public Administration India Management Decision-Making Essay on Decision-Making Upload and Share Your Article: Title* Description* Your Name* Your Email ID* Upload Your File Drop files here or Type business location decisions essay bellow words.
These are: (i) Simplification of Procedures: Lengthy and cumbersome procedures, unnecessary rules and regulations open up the gates for bias. Gas, electricity) but they should be able to negotiate a good price for their energy needs regardless of location in the. One must be rational in making a choice but total rationality in decision making is not possible. The cost of building on a Greenfield site one that has never previously been developed must be compared with the costs of adapting existing buildings on a developed site. It is, therefore, essential that improved rules of procedure should be established and useless regulations be weeded out. For example: A well-positioned high-street shop will have the potential for high sales but will have higher rental charges than a similar sized shop out of town. Should companies be held responsible after their consumers misuse their products? In India, not merely the officials but the general public too are biased. But leadership means that decisions must be made and responsibility accepted. Barnard has analyzed the limitations of the intellectual as threefold: (a) He may be irresponsible (absent-minded and non-punctual (b) He may be non-decisive (ultra-careful, ultra-judicial in his examination of a problem, seeing so many aspects of it and so many. Local government attitude to supporting business (including financial assistance).
These vices are deliberately developed whereas bias is generally unconscious. A positive working environment almost certainly leads to positive effects on productivity. Social network platforms are effective in promoting businesses. Simon business location decisions essay is of the view that objective rationality is impossible. Most of the decisions are, therefore, satisficing Simon called it Branded Rationality. Thus administrative man tries to be rational and satisficing, rather than maximizing.