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The sea route (Map 2) around the tip of South America often took more than six months and seasickness was rampant in the beginning. Generally unless a miner found a lot of gold quick and then left, he would eventually cal history gold rush essay chandeliers spend it all looking for more gold. The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream. Chapter 7, Seeing the Elephant, provides an overview of Californias gold rush, paying special attention to the role that immigrants played in the event. After securing passage to California the journey was over but few men had any idea of the hardships they were going to face. The thousands of emigrants from the eastern.S. Chinese Voices: From the Gold Rush to the Present. Initially, the call for citizens was open to all, but as immigrants began coming in larger and larger numbers, laws were established to limit immigration and curtail the rights of those immigrants. By 1850 log cabins were being built in the developing settlements. Many immigrant groups, especially the Chinese, began coming to the United States following news of the discovery of gold in California.
The Miners Dream is the songs of the. For many a few thousand dollars would be enough, and for others just being able to square up accounts was enough. These cheap meals lacking in vegetables and fruits, made the miners susceptible to scurvy. Sutters sawmill on the American, river in Northern California on, january 24, 1848. Therefore, they not only worked hard in the gold fields for themselves but also proved to be indefatigable in working for others. For many in industrializing nations and in countries ruled by colonial powers, the rushes seemed to provide opportunities outside of the economic and geopolitical bounds that circumscribed their lives. Many Mexicans came by overland routes, and it is believed that a total of nearly 100,000 persons had entered the territory by the end of 1849. The gold discovery needed validation, and President Polk was just the one to deliver. However, Mormon settler Sam Brannan made sure that word spread, and he had a good reason to. This was called lode mining. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. The reality of present misery, coupled with the prospect of future wealth, was strong enough to send much adventure-seeking Chinese on their journey to the Mountain of Gold, as California was then called by the Chinese.
Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Mining Frontiers of the Far West. Some portrayed him as a Robin Hood figure, out to help those who were persecuted, and others as a ruthless thug. The journey across the plains varied in length and difficulty, and because it was so severe a test it was one the gold seekers would never forget if they survived. For many centuries Chinese in the southeastern part of China had fought hunger and starvation.
The common goal was the Mother Lode region. Traditional treatment of women in the gold rush has eclipsed the northeastern womans experience of the event. Wilson and West, Elliott (1974). The Chinese were not the only immigrant group that suffered persecution in the gold fields of California. Like so many other attempts to draw people westward, the reality never lived up to the hype. There was a great number of men who barely knew how to pick up a shovel including doctors, lawyers, preachers, bookkeepers, and other white-collar workers, few of them prepared for the hard life of mining.
The California Gold Rush Shortly after the acquisition of California from Mexico a man by the name of John Sutter arrived in East San Francisco Bay in 1839. Legends of Murieta abound, growing out of the 1854 book The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta, written by John Rollins Ridge. As Anglo women began to arrive, they, too, inaugurated a pattern common in later rushes by campaigning against such public amusements as dance halls and brothels, which often employed Mexican, Chilean, French, and Chinese women. Approximately 16,000 settlers came to the Sierra Valley between 18Due to the settlement of the miners, communities grew and people began to raise cattle which provided meat and diary products. The West: An Illustrated History. For most participants, gold rushes never lived up to the hopes they inspired. As it was though many miners barely made enough to get by on a day to day basis. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1997.
Regular steamer service between Panama and California helped relieve the situation in Panama but never remedied. For those that stayed to the end and had still not struck it rich, there was the belief that they had done all they could to make their dreams come true. Used three principal routes: by ship around Cape Horn; a combination of sea and land travel, crossing Central America by the Panama or Nicaragua route; and in wagon trains across the Plains. The sea was very rough and it was bitterly cold. If the daily living was rough the work was then severe.
The introduction to this volume is a succinct account of the Chinese experience during the gold rush and after. By the winter of 1848, whispers of a gold strike had drifted eastward across the country but few easterners believed. Ultimately, those men who had traveled from China to California to find an escape from poverty for their families wound up alone in California. Few miners found more than enough gold to cover their daily living expenses, and fewer still had any left over after gambling and drinking. William Rice, further Reading, brands,. Over the next decade his discovery would have a profound effect on the experiences of hundreds of thousands of individuals, their families, their communities, and ultimately the nation as a whole. Boston: Little, Brown, 1996. His land turned out to be the gold fields, but Sutter turned out to be careless about his business dealings. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library. The departing gold seekers faced an immediate problem. As in all gold rushes, the so-called placer phase was short-lived: The gold that was found in abundance near the surface was taken early on, and that which was left was embedded in rock and was very difficult for individual miners to extract. As news spread, adventurers from all over the world made for California.
The food was often full of bugs, and the meat was often rotten. Advertisements like these helped the population of the west grow from 26,000 people in 1848 to 380,000 people by 1860 and the west continues to grow today. Many decided to stay in California and take up trades staying close to the land they had grown to love. John Bidwell also came to California in 1848 and within six months had made a fortune and became one of the richest and most respected men in California. The western rushes coincided with industrialization and class formation in the United States and with an era of North Atlantic global economic dominance. Farmers left their fields, merchants closed their shops, soldiers left their posts, and all made plans for California. Baths were infrequent and the men did not have enough clothes to change on a regular basis. By the mid 1850s more than 500 ships lay rotting in the bay, many still full of cargo that no one had taken time to unload. A more impressive place was the mining town, a community that was larger in size than the camp, and usually had a few buildings that could make some pretentions to substantiality. Such methods of construction produced communities that were wiped out by fires several times. By sailing across the Atlantic Ocean to Panama the forty-niners could then cross over the narrow land bridge between North America and South America.
One miner summarized the labors of mining in these terms: Mining is the hardest work imaginable and an occupation which very much endangers health. At night the passengers wore all their clothing and shivered in their bunks, praying they would make it through the night. Few forty-niners were prepared for the incredibly hard work. He was cleaning a canal leading the water to the sawmill. Gold Rush Essay, Research Paper, california Gold Rush, by: Don Gibson. He wanted to finish his mill and solidify his claim to the land before hoards of gold seekers began coming to his property to search for gold. These high prices were paid for by the average miner working day in and day out under miserable condit- ions and poor health.
The chapter also contains important photographs of mining. Waiting in Panama City for passage to cal history gold rush essay chandeliers California could take several weeks and the numbers of gold seekers piling up in Panama City was staggering. Ships were diverted from their usual routes to carry gold seekers from European countries, China, Australia, and the South Seas. Norton, ust for any serious study of westward migration, this book pays particular attention to the roles of overlooked minorities. Mexican miners took to the hills and came back to the gold fields merely to raid the mines. For over a century the forty-niner has remained a happy figure, a symbol of freedom from bourgeois restraint. The Discovery of Inexhaustible Gold Mines in California read one headline, closely followed by these tantalizing details, clearly intended for an international audience: Tremendous Excitement Among the Americans: The Extensive Preparations to Migrate to the Gold Region.
John Sutter built a stockade and a fort and soon after became referred to as Captain Sutter, and his riverbank establishment Sutters Fort. He was in the midst of building a lumber mill on the South Fork of the American River on January 24, 1848, when gold was found. Ultimately, individual miners would be replaced by mining companies. Georgetown, California: The Talisman Press, 1967., California Gold. With a pillow on my shoulder, I began my perilous journey. His exploits were so notorious that the governor of California offered a reward of one thousand dollars for his head.
Many men loaded up their tools and moved on to new gold fields such as the Black Hills, Montana, Oregon, and even as far as Australia. In the late eighteen hundreds at the time cal history gold rush essay chandeliers of the gold rush men and women were accustomed to hard physical labor, but the intense labor required by mining eventually wore down even the most optimistic and the physically and mentally tough. Sutters Sawmill, james. When thousands began flowing into California settlements sprang up overnight in the mining fields. (Roberts, 4) Roberts argues that the gold rush was a democratic epic, an example of America's commitment to social equality, rush-era California as a classless society characterized by the events vaunted freedom of expression and rough frontier egalitarianism. The numbers tell the story. A tin pan that could be bought for fifteen cents anywhere in the United States sold for eight dollars in the gold fields. See also: Asian immigrants; Australian and New Zealander immigrants; California; Capitation taxes; Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882; Chinese immigrants; Contract labor system; Economic opportunities; Foreign miner taxes; Mexican immigrants; San Francisco). His workers went after gold along with the miners and left his fields and cattle unattended. The trials and tribulations they faced are many and forever carved into American history.
Ridge, Martin (1999) Disorder, crime, and punishment in the California Gold Rush. The real danger of the overland journey wasnt the indians, but the lack of water cal history gold rush essay chandeliers especially the last 200 miles through the deserts of Nevada. Opportunities opened for many non-American emigrants, as set forth by Caughey. Few records remain of these lonely men, only scattered songs such as the following: In the second reign year of Haamfung 1852, a trip to Gold Mountain was made. Bibliography, works Cited Johnson, William Weber. After breakfast the miners made their way down to the streams with their picks, shovels, pans, and buckets. By land they faced a 2,000 mile trip across rugged landscape (Map 1). Prior to the gold rush California had little community life on which to build.
For them it was a grand adventure that they would never forget. Chapter 4, Uncertain Enterprises, concerns the gold rush. Lively history of the event that Brands describes as having launched the most astonishing mass movement of people since the Crusades. Hard drinkers and gamblers, the forty-niners, the generation of the emigrants to California, created an archetypal saloon society, where more fortunes were made from speculation in land and goods than from gold. Angry citizens would hang or banish a thief. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1984. A weakly man might about as well go to digging his grave as to dig gold.(Rohrbough, 138). By the end of the year the brothers hade made one and a half million dollars. Wealth was the dream; grinding toil was the reality that for many made it into a nightmare. In 1860, the Pony Express was started. Contracts were signed that spelled out rules of conduct, especially with respect to participation and sharing of duties. Date:, location: California, significance: The California gold rush was a defining moment in the history of westward migration in the United States. How could the forty-niner justify his long absence when he returned with no more than he left with?
Under the Compromise of 1850, California joined as a free state. For the common miner construction costs were so high that most buildings were made of wood frame with canvas stretched over. James Marshall, who found the first nugget, never made anything off of the gold discovery. (Library of Congress chinese Immigrants, the citizens in southeast China were particularly vulnerable to the lure of easy gold. Working fifty pans of dirt in a ten hour day was a reasonable goal. Consisting of equal parts democratic epic and drunken debauch, the gold rush has been characterized as a period of freedom and raw experience unfiltered by the dictates of culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1948. Miners who used water and pans, monitors or long toms to sift though the dirt were placer mining. Berkeley: University of California Press. Yung, Judy, Gordon.
The gold in California helped finance the Union side in the Civil War. Nevertheless, despite all the diversity in ethnicity and nationality, there was little diversity in gender: Nine out of ten of the forty-niners were men. In a way, coming home was the coming to terms with failure. Many forty-niners did strike it rich as is the case of John and Daniel Murphy who came to California in early 1848. This very quality, however, made them a threat to American workers, particularly as miners discovered that very few of the people who rushed to California were getting rich. Everything was sold at unbelievable profits such as shovels for two dollars, frying pan for two dollars, a mule for two hundred dollars, a box of sardines for sixteen dollars, one pound of hard bread for two dollars. Gold Is the Cornerstone. Innovative social history of the California gold rush that explores the events multicultural dimensions and the collisions among vastly different cultures. Days of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the American Nation. Railroad Act was passed by Congress in 1862, however, the railroad did not begin until 1865 after the Civil War. Gordon, Mary.,. If they had left after a couple of years they would have been forever looking back and wondering if they had just missed the mother lode.