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Essay on dengue fever in pakistan 2011

essay on dengue fever in pakistan 2011

The virus targets dendritic cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells for infection and replication, which in turn activates an immune response to purge the body of the virus; however, most infected individuals will not develop symptoms. The primary vector for dengue transmission in Guangzhou is Aedes albopictus (Jing., 2012). The Aedes aegypti mosquito has found to be the source. These mosquitoes inhabit urban areas where there is poor sanitation, because discarded man-made waste, like old tires, will trap water, which then acts as a breeding ground for these mosquitoes (Shepherd, 2012, Background). History and prevalence of dengue in different countries, symptoms, causes, treatment, conclusion.

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Many people essay on dengue fever in pakistan 2011 get, dengue in their system more than once, but the second infection is the absolute worst. Recognition of the dengue fever rash permits a rapid and early diagnosis, which is critical as dengue fever can progress to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which is fatal and obviously can cause death to the victim. Currently, between 50 and 100 million people become infected with the virus each year. This manifestation of dengue is potentially lethal because it can lead to plasma leaking, fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, severe bleeding, organ failure (WHO, 2012 and/or circulatory failure (Shepherd, 2012, Pathophysiology). Primates continue to represent the primary reservoir for the dengue virus, because the virus can amplify without causing disease (Weaver and Vasilakis, 2009). Dengue began to spread out of control. Guangzhou is a large metropolitan area with a subtropical, humid climate, where all four serotypes have emerged in the past. The most dangerous form of this disease is dengue shock syndrome, which occurs primarily in children who are infected with the virus a second time (niaid, 2007). Aegypti will remain infected for the duration of its lifespan, which averages 21 days; however, under desiccating conditions, infected. Hospitalization was required in 16 of the cases, which is consistent with a more severe form of the disease.

First, they began with the water. The disease was spread around mostly in 2002. Dengue, the warning signs would be less noticeable, and the fever would be less treatable. Discussion Jing and colleagues (2012) investigated the genetic and phylogenetic relationships between denv-4 outbreaks in 19, to determine whether the recent outbreak represented a reemergence of the 1990 strain or one that essay on dengue fever in pakistan 2011 was recently introduced. Dermatologists should be aware of the distinctive exanthema of dengue fever. Luckily, the warning signs for. The serotypes are distinguished from each other using distinct antibodies and can be further divided into several genotypes. A phylogenetic comparison to a Thailand strain isolated from a 2002 outbreak revealed strong homology, consistent with this representing the parent strain. Full recovery occurs shortly thereafter, unless they develop hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. Some patients experience gastritis, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Molecular Epidemiology The current assumption is that the four main serotypes emerged from a common ancestor about 1,000 years ago in a primate host, and then entered humans about 500 years ago in Asia or Africa (Shepherd, 2012, Etiology). It has steadily increased in both incidence and distribution over the past 40 years.

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Researches have shown that several factors are contributing to the resurgence dengue fever such as uncontrolled urbanization, increased international travel, substandard socio-economic conditions, and finally global warming. The people came up with new ideas to prevent the virus and how to educate others on the fever. These results suggest there was no phylogenetic relationship between the Guangzhou denv-4 outbreaks in 19; therefore, the 2010 outbreak represented an introduced strain rather than a reemergence. This report will review what is understood about this disease, its mode of transmission, ongoing efforts to control its spread, and how public health virologists track outbreaks. There are currently four main serotypes of dengue : denv-1, denv-2, denv-3, and denv-4.

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The evidence from all of these different sources of information provided consistent, and thus sufficient, support for concluding that the 2010 denv-4 outbreak represented an introduced strain from Thailand. Dengue fever usually starts suddenly with a high fever, headache, pain behind the eyes, and pain in the muscles and joints. Once the larva hatch, the mosquito goes through many phases until becoming a full mosquito. Denv-4 is endemic to Thailand, where several dengue epidemics have occurred over the past several decades. Hemorrhagic fever will affect over half a million people each year, contributing to 25,000 yearly dengue -related deaths (reviewed by Jing., 2012). Many blood tests were given to adults and children for treatment ideas. Dengue fever are mostly obvious, so you know you have. Nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite are common. Aegypti can become infected with the dengue virus when it feeds on an infected human or primate, and once infected, the virus begins to replicate within the organs and body cavity of the insect. Dengue fever is increasing in many of these regions, including the Americas, South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific (Shepherd, 2012, Background). After a while, many are infected with the virus, and many are dying.

essay on dengue fever in pakistan 2011

Unless medical care essay on dengue fever in pakistan 2011 is available, this is frequently a fatal condition. Each type of the dengue virus is re-emerging worldwide, especially in the western hemisphere. To determine whether the 2010 outbreak represented a reemergence of the 1990 denv-4 strain, the genotypes and phylogenetic relationships between viruses involved in the individual dengue cases were investigated. Dengue fever kills many people each day. In addition, the increased risk of developing hemorrhagic disease or dengue shock when reinfected with the virus is consistent with the possibility that some serotypes produce more severe disease. High-risk areas for dengue infection tend to be regions with a humid climate, because the primary vector for its transmission, Aedes aegypti, thrives in such environments (Shepherd, 2012, Etiology).

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Health experts have known about dengue fever from more than 200 years. For example, denv-4 has been correlated with more severe disease in children, and to a lesser extent in adults, after secondary infection (reviewed by Jing., 2012). Global warming has shown to be a major contributor to the spread of dengue fever. After a while, studies show the mosquito is the problem. The warning signs are quite clear, due to the person who was affected. Dengue is spread by the Aedes Aegypti, a domestic, day-biting mosquito that prefers to bite humans. If a child were to become infected with. These regions are home to almost 3 billion people, therefore nearly half of the world's population is at risk for becoming infected with dengue. The larva generates in the water and stays to suck the blood of the people. Essay Written By: Sanjran Gichki BA student imcb-F-10/4. People who become symptomatic will suffer primarily from a fever that lasts about a week. In addition to the above symptoms, massive bleeding leads to hypotension and then shock.

After a couple of hours occur, increased fluid leakage, a low platelet counts, internal bleeding, increased cytokines, and shock from low blood volume begin to show. When compared to another denv-4 sequence isolated from Guangzhou in 2010, which had been deposited in GenBank previously, both were found to be identical phylogenetically (Jing., 2012). The timing of the cases, the limited geographic distribution, and the uniform disease severity, suggests that the Guangzhou 2010 outbreak was introduced from Thailand. Children below the age essay on dengue fever in pakistan 2011 of 15 are susceptible to developing hemorrhagic fever, although all ages are equally prone to developing this condition on the American continent and in Taiwan (Shepherd, 2012, Pathophysiology). Get help with your writing.

Sponsored Programs Minority Nursing Scholarships American Association of Colleges of Nursings Minority Nurse Faculty Scholarship Amount: 18,000 Description: This scholarship is for full-time graduate nursing student from minority background who agree to teach in schools of nursing after graduation. Free, essays on Dengue Fever,. Buy this book New York: Brownstone, 1984. Dengue, bulletin Volume 35, 2011 61 Clinical and biochemical characteristics of dengue fever cases in Karachi, Pakistan, table 2: Laboratory findings of the study participants with suspected DF (n125) Tests nTests ordered Test positive Thrombocytopenia 92.3 Low haemoglobin. This side of him does charitable acts and fights against the evil in his society. By this time, Chandler was on the payroll of a Southern California oil syndicate, just as the oil industry around.A. Volume I (of II) (English) (as Author) Davenport Dunn, a Man of Our Day. Here you will come to know about the Short essay on dengue fever. tags: Crime, Prison, Capital punishment, Criminology Better Essays 797 words (2.3 pages) Preview - Crime and Punishment was written by a Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky in 1866.

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In fact, most characters illustrated in this twisted novel can be evaluated as possesing "good" and "evil" qualities. Bulwer; And, A Dissertation on the Origin of Evil by Lord Brougham (English) (as Author) Godolphin, Complete (English) (as Author) Godolphin, Volume. Volume 4 Being secret memoirs of Madame Du Hausset, lady's maid to Madame de Pompadour, and of the Princess Lamballe (English) (as Author) Memoirs of the Courts of Louis XV and XVI. Continue Reading 1502 Words 6 Pages, reflective Statement on Crime and Punishment I first considered exploring the effect of irregular plot pacing and the placement of the murder at the beginning of the novel when I picked The. Given this form of punishment is extreme, there are many people who have many different opinions on this topic. It is set in St Petersburg where the main character, Raskolnikov, appears to be an ex-student living, in poverty, a life of lethargy. Petersburg, a malignant city, on the psyche of the impoverished student Raskolnikov. Arata Saturday AM Crime and punishment through time has made some dramatic changes.

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In Pakistan, in the summer of 2011, more than 300 people died of Dengue fever. Strong Essays 1548 words (4.4 pages preview - In Fyodor Dostoevsky book Crime and Punishment, women at this time in Russia were not the equals of men in terms of education and power. Essay ON dengue fever (530 words) outlines Introduction History and prevalence of dengue in different countries Symptoms Causes Treatment Conclusion Nowadays many people suffer from dengue. THE significance OF marmeladov'S recollection scene Katerina Ivanovna must deal with a man who drinks his life away while his family starves. Continue Reading 1555 Words 7 Pages surely comes with a price. Applicants must be actively involved in nephrology nursing-related health care services and have not attended niwi in the past three years. Dostoevsky portrays Sonia as a multifaceted character causing many different Continue Reading 1281 Words 6 Pages In Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment, the murder of the pawnbroker bears little significance when compared to the 'punishment' that Raskolnikov endures. tags: Dostoevsky Crime and Punishment Free Essays 490 words (1.4 pages) Preview - The Murderer's Motives in Dostoevsky's Crime Punishment The beauty of Crime and Punishment is that there are no absolutes.

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That, for me, would be a reason for capital punishment because children are innocent and need the essay on dengue fever in pakistan 2011 guidance of an adult society. His journey in overcoming his ego can be seen through his initial crime, denial of failure, and acceptance of mistakes. There are those that succumb to its motion and there are a certain few, like Christ and Napoleon, who temporarily grasp the wheel and shape all life around them. Country program estimate 2011 12: 79 million Total estimated official. Le Plongeon in Yucatan, His Account of Discoveries (English) (as Contributor) Sacred Mysteries Among the Mayas and the Quiches, 11,500 Years Ago Their relation to the sacred mysteries of Egypt, Greece, Chaldea and India. Needing a vessel to communicate and push these religious influences onto a struggling and tormented Raskolnikov, Dostoevsky uses Sonias character to contrast religious perspectives and offer a beacon of hope to Raskolnikov. She looked at him with inexpressible reproachand simply began sobbing all at once very bitterly, covering her face with her hands (321)2E It is evident from this interaction that Sonya cherishes her faith and is taken back by Raskolnikovs inquisition and indirect denial of God. Dengue Fever Dengue fever is a flu-like viral disease common throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world, mainly in urban and peri-urban areas. Whether for good or for evil, they are, and will be, remembered. This disease used to be called break-bone fever because it sometimes causes severe joint and muscle pain.

Pakistan with Outline from this site. Zolotow, Maurice, "Through a Shot Glass, Darkly: How Raymond Chandler Screwed Hollywood" Buy this book 1978, Action Magazine. Dengue fever is an infectious disease carried by mosquitoes and caused by any of four related dengue viruses. tags: Crime and Punishment Essays Better Essays 652 words (1.9 pages) Preview - Research Paper Capital punishment is punishment for a crime by death, which is frequently referred to as the death penalty. A Tale of the Twenty-Second Century (English) (as Author) Tales of My Time, Vol. Better Essays 743 words (2.1 pages preview - Slow slicing, or death by a thousand cuts, was a capital punishment in 900.D. Why, Continue Reading 490 Words 2 Pages, central to both The Stranger and Crime and Punishment is a senseless murder, however, the way each murderer feels about his own act of murder is quite different. Dostoevsky uses a unique and descriptive diction which takes the readers perspective and puts them in the mind of the murderer Raskolnikov.

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One part of him is intellectual: cold, unfeeling, inhumane, and exhibiting tremendous self-will. Dostoevsky's genius is in describing how Raskolnikov struggles in his thoughts and actions Continue Reading 1934 Words 8 Pages Self Discovery in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment and Camus' The Outsider In every society, it is important. They serve to illuminate the state of a character in a way that would not otherwise be clear. Dengue Fever is one of the many viruses around the world that sneak up on you and cause many problems. Buy this book Frederick Hungar, 1982. As a young man who has left his studies in the university, Raskolnikov finds himself wallowing in poverty and self-pity. Livingstone's Expedition to the Zambesi and Its Tributaries And of the Discovery of Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, (English) (as Author) The Legacy of Greece Essays By: Gilbert Murray,. Dengue Fever, source and Credit what IS, dengue fever?

essay on dengue fever in pakistan 2011

God will protect her! She's also dead, and he's the prime suspect. Camus and Dostoevsky wrote novels that portrays a young man committing murder and how the young man faces the consequences and deals with the horrible crime the which he has committed. Many tropical and subtropical regions of the world are currently combating this disease, including 112 countries in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Austra. Raymond Chandler: A Check List. Raskolnikov, who commits a heinous crime because he believes himself to be above morality, is beset with fear and guilt about his actions. Both of these characters are at-times self-sacrificing, both are struggling for meaning in a dreary existence, and both are generally unhappy people, but brighten and seem to enjoy each other's presence-even when Raskolnikov is berating her religion. She realizes that making sure Raskolnikov is there will probably secure her fate in that she will not marry Luzhin. Labaree, Mary Schauffler, see: Platt, Mary Schauffler, l'Abbat, matre d'armes.