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Each successive wave brought encounters with new "others" for white Europeans, and reciprocally brought several peoples in different parts of the world into the sphere of influence of a self-confident, fair skinned "other" equipped with big vessels, firearms and. Gruzinski, Serge / Wachtel, Nathan (eds. 3 Perhaps less dramatic but nonetheless of enormous economic significance, were the Portuguese voyages to India, which revitalized Western interaction with southern and eastern Asia. Flows of migrants are an example of voluntary, large-scale and (usually) permanent movements of people. 31 It has been calculated that in the two and half centuries before the American Revolution, 175 American natives had been transported or had travelled to Britain as envoys or captives. During the early modern period, however, Europeans encounters were the consequence of a process of expansion on the part of dynamic Western societies during their transformation into modern capitalist economies and nation-states. Marx, Christoph: Barbarei und Zivilisation: Europa und die staatenlosen Gesellschaften, in: Themenportal Europäische Geschichte, 2008, URL: /2008/Article280. While the attitudes described above were undoubtedly coloured by debates about european expansion and conquest essay legitimate authority in the newly acquired territories, the Amerindian peoples also posed serious questions of a philosophical and doctrinal nature. Africa was depicted as a land of despotism and of abject, immutable, and pervasive "savagery" a subject better befitting natural sciences than history. European consumption patterns and social habits were increasingly shaped by new products coming over from Asia, which came into vogue: spices, tea, tulips, fine printed muslins and calicoes, silk garments and accessories such as pyjamas, shawls or fans, wallpaper. At least three major problems emerged during these discoveries.
His portrayal of the population of the region as having well-established political structures contradicted the traditional view of this population as uncivilized. American Encounters: Natives and Newcomers from European Contact to Indian Removal, New York 2000. God s will be done! Two predominant factors influenced this perception. In his influential Histoire naturelle, g?n?rale et particuli?re 13, the French naturalist Buffon sought to draw a connection between the physical and social condition of the American "savage" and the supposed "newness" of the American continent and of its natural history.
It was argued that societies which had passed through all the historical stages of development, culminating in a capitalist, urban civilization, clearly possessed a material and intellectual superiority to those that had not. The term discovery is controversial as it implies a passivity on the part of indigenous populations, who were "found" by Europeans. These were quite apparently poor destitute souls crying for salvation, which was readily provided, regardless of whether the rude indigenions knew. Reasons For European Expansion Essay, Research Paper. They were not, however, the predominating driving force that lead to the discovery of the rest of the world).
Another polygenetic view held that they were the product of an act, or acts, of creation separate to european expansion and conquest essay the one described in Genesis, with God creating different human beings according to the differing geomorphology of the various regions of the world. An anonymous author proffers this model conjecture, Western Europe s outward expansion in the 15th and 16th centuries was caused primarily by the unique brand of centralized governments which developed in England, France and Spain. The venerated Francis Drake was one of these privateers, or pirates, who discovered parts of the New World while attempting to steal the riches of enemy ships. However, these common prejudices continued to affect how most Westerners evaluated the position of the Asian countries on their scale of civilizational development. Close encounters of a third kind A distinct aspect of European discoveries and encounters with "otherness" is the transportation of non-Europeans to Europe and the West.
Barnum (18101891) transformed ancient practices of freak or alien exhibition into a large-scale commercial entertainment industry in the age of leisure, mass entertainment and consumerism. The geography of the countries which explored and eventually conquered the Western World was of great import. The sense of dislocation, as well as cruel and degrading treatment, meant that the lot of the human exhibits was frequently a miserable one. According to a biblical, monogenetic view of mankind, they were the descendants of Adam, according to which view they had survived the biblical flood by migrating to land that was not submerged. 484425 BC), whose writings had been rediscovered and translated into Latin just a couple of decades before Columbus's first voyage. From the late 15th century, when the first "savages" were transported to Europe, to the first decades of the 20th century, when exotic people were a regular feature in colonial and imperial exhibitions, many aspects of this phenomenon changed. II: A Century of Wonder. 33 A primary purpose was to exhibit captives as tangible evidence of victory, as the "physical realization of empire and imperialism". Greenblatt, Stephen: Marvellous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World, Oxford 1991. Thus, two contrasting attitudes emerged. The third wave witnessed expansion into central Africa by Europeans during the 19th century (the so-called "scramble" or "race" for Africa ). 9 David Hume (17111776) and Charles de Brosses (17091777) reflected on how forms of religious worship had evolved from fetishism and idolatry, to monotheism and rational deism.
26 Among the most significant contributions of this scholarship was the discovery of Oriental mainly Islamic and Hindu written legal traditions and jurisprudence. 6 Acosta moved in the direction of mature socio-anthropological thought, dispensing with the simplistic stereotypes of the "good" or "noble savage and the "bad" or " ignoble savage ". Not only Native Americans, but also Africans and Asians, began to be transported to Europe to adorn the temporary European museums european expansion and conquest essay of mankind. The happiness of humans a secular version of salvation or the fulfilment of the providential or historical destiny of a people, were seen as being dependent on the accomplishment of "civilized" ways of life. In other areas which gradually became the object of European observation, such as South Africa, aboriginal populations 15 were regarded until well into the 19th century as the most degraded representatives of the human kind, an example of extreme barbarity, and even sub-human.
At the same time, Europeans believed that contemporary Asia was stagnant, and the economic and technological gap between Europe and Asia was widening, particularly in the case of those countries that refused to open their markets. There are even cases of North American Indians being transported to 17th and 18th century France and Britain with the purpose of dazzling them with the splendour of the respective royal court and the military power of the respective. The irritating obstinacy of the followers of Mohammed had also began to pall; conversion was a messy and expensive process, and most of the crusades had failed, leaving Christians a desire to proselytize to an ear not attached. The idea of the "noble savage" contributed to the development of primitivistic attitudes which exalted the simple, natural life, unspoiled by civilized society. While historical genetics has since established the migration paths and mixing of populations of the Australian landmass and in the Pacific region, Europeans in the 18th century believed the Pacific Islanders and the Australian Aborigines had lived in complete isolation. They related to the origins and nature, the history, and the future of the Native American peoples. Beard, Mary: The Roman Triumph, Cambridge 2007. The often short-term sojourn of these native Americans, Asians and Africans played a considerable role in the formation of European images and concepts of the "other". Thomson, Rosemary Garland (ed. 34 One important difference between ancient triumphs and modern exhibitions was that modern exhibitions were not always war captives.
The discoveries were no less important from a European perspective, but encounters there which were the starting point of longstanding relationships were primarily with populous, highly advanced, powerful countries. Scepticism towards the Christian, and particularly the Catholic, view of world history, and advocacy of natural religion and of tolerance contributed to Sinomania. Chinese historical traditions based on recorded astronomical observations suggested a chronology of historical time that was incompatible with the bible and thus handed a powerful weapon to those in Europe who believed that the world was much older than the Judaic scriptures suggest. According to this view, it was the duty of the Spanish crown to establish a political order that would protect its American subjects from the colonists' rapacity. In 15th-century Europe, the existence of ancient and powerful civilizations in Asia was broadly accepted, though dependable knowledge about them was scarce. Did they travel to the West in a large group (like colonial slaves) or small group? While European Enlightenment thought also contained scepticism towards the idea of European society as the pinnacle of human development, it ultimately paved the way for positivistic and evolutionist theories in the 19th century. Co-habitation and intermarriage was less common, except in Dutch Batavia, where it was encouraged from quite early. It remains european expansion and conquest essay unclear why humanity chose a relatively spontaneous moment to matriculate from the sheltered semicircle of Mediterranean lands, to expand to the farthest reaches of the earth, with an inchoate disregard for personal welfare. Not a fan, resource Information. The phenomenon of the "professional savages" eventually emerged with members of ethnic groups entering contractual or quasi-contractual agreements to appear as warriors, hunters, horsemen and dancers in ethnic shows. However, non-Europeans previously came to Europe as trainee interpreters, diplomatic envoys and religious converts.
However, the role of the physical environment was not considered to be of primary importance. Elliott, John.: Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America 14921830, New Haven. As potential members of the Catholic Church and subjects of the crown of Castile, they should not be enslaved, it was argued, and they should be granted the same rights as any other Spanish subjects. The perceived link between immobility, the absence of civil and political liberties, and the consequent lack of individual security in the case of contemporary Asian societies only confirmed European beliefs about the link between freedom, progress and civilization, as exemplified by contemporary Europe. The presence of non-Europeans in Europe and the West in the early modern period is a broad and varied subject. The stereotype of the "bad" or "ignoble savage" continued to influence perceptions of the Americas in 18th and 19th century Europe. Slavery apologists went so far as to maintain that Africans were destined to be victims of Arab slave-traders or despotic local rulers, and would thus be better off under European masters. Furthermore, these encounters were influenced to a greater extent by European knowledge and attitudes which had developed over centuries. Encounters with non-Europeans, which had had a strong Eurocentric aspect from the beginning, seemed to confirm the ideas of the Europeans regarding their place in the hierarchy of civilizational development. These European impressions and observations were recorded in a vast historical, juridical, religious and philosophical literature. In other words, the present state of the American peoples represented the primitive state of mankind. Purporting to show living "others" in their "native" dress, re-enacting their customary ways of life in reconstructions of their "natural" environment, these "human zoos" with their "black villages" were not only a form of entertainment, but a public enactment.
Engraved portraits, printed descriptions and subsequently also photographs of these presentations circulated widely, purporting to convey the physical appearance, clothes, artefacts, weapons and tools of these exotic "others". The very different Civility of Europe and of China; the barbarism of Persia and Abyssinia, the erratic manners of Tartary, and of Arabia. Trade and religion were the primary concerns of the Europeans from the start and coloured their initial impressions. Europeans lay and clerical residing in Asia numbered in the hundreds, rather than thousands. By Robert Burns, Edinburgh 1819, vol. Before the 19th century, direct, intensive contact at the local level was rare. As discussed above, the adoption of European culture was a prerequisite for the attainment of civilization according to prevalent European attitudes. Its rapid growth accompanied the process of European expansion in the New World, providing the educated European public with an opportunity to familiarize itself with phenomena from the other side of the Atlantic. European trading companies therefore strove to develop new finance systems for their so-called "investment" in exports from their factories in Asia. The consequences of these events have been the subject of numerous historical studies, which are summarized below. These flows were predominantly from Europe to elsewhere in the world for a long period, though this trend was reversed in the second half of the 20th century.
Religious turmoil, with the mutual intolerance leading to constant and bloody disputes, directed the persecuted to pursue a haven in the New World and set up a religious foundation there. These people were frequently exhibited in "ceremonies of possession". "Scientific" and "popular" racism both contributed to the objectification of non-Europeans in exhibitions and "human zoos". The geography of Spain, England, and France served as a means to propel the denizens of these countries westward, towards the sea which surrounded them all on at least 2 sides and pointed them towards the New World and trading in Africa. In general, abolitionist writing drew on primitivist examples when describing African peoples, frequently depicting them as innocent victims whom rapacious Europeans had torn from their simple and natural way of life. 21 While European culture possessed concepts and representations of Asia from the time of Herodotus and Aristotle (384322 BC), this "knowledge" was limited in scope and referred to a little portion of Asia. Bancel, Nicolas. 2 Christopher Columbus's (14511506) "discovery" of a "new" world marked a qualitative, as well as a quantitative, change. Secondly, they produced an impressive array of printed travel accounts and historical writings, through which the deeds of European adventurers, conquistadores and navigators entered into national historical narratives. The shift from Sinomania to Sinophobia was a change in intellectual attitudes, rather than a change in tastes in consumer goods. This also applied to European governors, diplomats and officials, who regulated European trade and financial activity in the region. And they were also the countries nearest to the New World; it was simply pragmatism that determined the direction of the fleets. Adair, James: The History of the American Indians: Particularly those Nations Adjoining to the Missisippi sic East and West Florida, Georgia, South and North Carolina, and Virginia: Containing an Account of their Origin, Language, Manners, Religious and Civil Customs, Laws.
Two prevalent attitudes towards the Native American quickly emerged. He held that all races of men, before being fully civilized, had undergone an historical development through three successive levels of barbarism. It must also be noted that the practice of abducting members of other ethnic groups is by no means a purely European phenomenon. It is therefore no surprise that some of the most acute analyses of Amerindian societies often came from men of the church, such as the Jesuit José de Acosta (15391600). French explorers tended towards a sentimental, idealizing interpretation. Britain, Spain, Portugal, and France were all coastal countries; the water was and had been readily utilized for hundreds of years. Such publications brought the experience of new worlds into the purview of cultivated Europeans. European expansion was not spearheaded or enticed by these governments primarily, though they were contemporaneous and conducive. Connected with the above considerations was the problem of social forms and of history.
Two circumstances, in particular, contributed to this change. In order to establish favourable trading conditions European governments tended to engage in more permanent relationships with Asian states and to actively interfere with their internal affairs. They noted examples of inequality, oppression and strife. This form of Sinophobia became the prevalent attitude towards China in the late 18th century and vastly outweighed the Sinomania which had caused the "crisis of the European mind" 23 and the element of Enlightenment culture and thought which had a respect. In England, Queen Elizabeth s privateers waged a brutal war agains the gold laden spanish ships. Baltic to the, white Sea and the, siberian coasts and westward to the northern American coasts.
Even after death, many were denied the dignity european expansion and conquest essay of being treated like human beings, as their corpses were handed over to comparative anatomists and others for further study and display. Diffusionism and evolutionism were two further theories deviating from traditional Christian doctrine which were proposed to account for the existence and origins of the Native Americans. Preliminary remarks, now the Great Map of Mankind is unrolled at once; and there is no state or Gradation of barbarism, and no mode of refinement which we have not at the same instant under our View. Ethnic shows were much more diverse and their audiences considerably larger. Boucher, Philip.: Cannibal Encounters: Europeans and Island Caribs, 14921763, Baltimore 1992. The South Seas explorations of the late 18th century thus contributed to European philosophical debates as well as preparing the way for trade, missionary activity and colonization in the region. The second wave of expansion occurred during the 18th century, mainly in the Pacific region, including. From the second half of the 17th century, however, the efforts of Jesuit missionaries and of French, English, and German orientalists led to the discovery of an entirely different, culturally developed kind of "otherness Arabic literary traditions; the Brahminic. In France, the reaction was influenced by primitivism and the revival of the "noble savage" stereotype, as witnessed by Denis Diderot's (17131784) Supplement au voyage de Bougainville. Thirdly, there was the Oriental seas and northern Asia.
37 The vivid impression which encounters with exotic peoples left on Michel de Montaigne (15331592), whose reflections on cannibalism and on barbarism may have been inspired by his encounter with a Tupi tribesman, who probably came to France with. From the voyage of Vasco da Gama (ca. In the meantime, the British defeat of the French in 1763 led to the start of direct British rule in north-eastern India, and to a more intensive study of, and interest in, India's past and present. Human Zoos: From the Hottentot Venus to Reality Shows, Liverpool 2009. Firstly, there was the Atlantic basin from the.
The killing of James Cook in 1779 during his third voyage served to reinforce misgivings further. Until the late 18th century, then, the European encounter with the Orient was not with the partial exception of Dutch Indonesian possessions characterized by large-scale white settlement, territorial acquisitions and political control; and subsequent European involvement in the region involved. These had a considerable effect on European culture and, in particular, on European and Western concepts of the Orient. Acosta also showed how orthodox Christian diffusionism could be reconciled with history by applying the theory that migration and the persistence of nomadic conditions were unfavourable to civilization. Subsequent encounters with the Islamic world in the form of the menacing Ottoman Empire reinforced this view of Asian "otherness" and "strangeness" and added religious overtones. Greene, Jack.: The Intellectual Construction of America, Chapel Hill 1993. It was common among very many non-European people and, indeed, was in some cases a two-way process where Europeans and non-Europeans came into contact and conflict. While describing Tahiti and Tonga in terms of a paradise, perceptive scholarly voyagers such as Johann Reinhold and Georg Forster could not help dwelling on more substantial problems, such as "the Causes of the Difference in the.
In Safawid Persia, Mughal India, and especially in Qing China, the degree of political and administrative organization, the economic resources, population sizes, architecture and urban centres, as well as the technological and manufacturing skills, and cultural and artistic. Had been brought to Europe and displayed or employed in either public or private ceremonies. Such encounters brought Europeans into contact with peoples which they believed had experienced little or no external contact before. They also paved the way to the British colonization of Australia, which was to become the second largest British settlement colony, and to the discovery of the Terra Australis Incognita. The effect on Asian economies and societies was no less profound. The development of the compass and astrolabe, instruments of navigation, also contributed the art of sailing and encouraged investigation of the ends of the earth.
By Thomas Wellsted Copeland, Cambridge. According to this european expansion and conquest essay attitude, the natives were fully human and thus had the capacity to acquire all the perceived benefits of European civilization, including Christian doctrine and, accordingly, salvation. Bitterli, Urs: Cultures in Conflict: Encounters between European and Non-European Cultures, Stanford 1989. The Savage state of North America, and of New Zealand. N/A, in order to share the full version of this attachment, you will need to purchase the resource on Tes.
Secondly, there were the northern seas, stretching eastward from the. Mason, Peter: Infelicities: Representations of the Exotic, Baltimore 1998. Crosby, Alfred.: Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 9001900, Cambridge 1986. The European balance of trade was deeply affected by this growth in import from Asia. One of these flowers was the progression of technology. The positive stereotype of the virtuous and natural "other" also implied criticism of European civilization as corrupt and immoral. An instructive connection can be made between these captives in early modern and modern Europe and the ceremonial practices of the ancient world, in particular the Roman "triumph". Other civilizations, other histories Europe's relationship with the rest of the Eurasian continent was defined by a different dynamic. After the initial Portuguese involvement on the Atlantic coast, European involvement in sub-Saharan Africa was later maintained by the French and, in particular, by the British, who dominated African trade during the 18th century. British expansion and supremacy in India meant that the Chinese market could not remain closed and Britain and other European powers adopted a more forceful approach on the issue. Another Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama, reached India and returned with such lucre that the Portuguese King Manuel cast a series of perilous expiditions which resulted in landholdings in present day Brazil, Africa, Arabia, India, Java, and Mallaca. 17091783) History of the American Indians (1775) 10 provided a sympathetic depiction of the Indian tribes of the Upcountry South, which the author perceived of as members, "freemen and equals of a new American society. One attempt to explain this supposed immobility discussed environmental and cultural causes.