Even Christianity didnt have a huge effect on the core culture, and there is evidence that suggests some druidic practices were integrated into early Celtic Christianity, which…Read more
During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's…Read more
In the Kalahari-sand region of Hwange National Park, elephants consumed high-sodium lick soils during the dry season possibly in response to an unmet requirement for sodium ( Holdø, Dudley McDowell, 2002 ). The soil in the mineral lick areas also contained elevated levels of magnesium and calcium, however, these minerals were also available in adequate amounts from other sources such as termite mounds or dietary browse. Diversity and Comedy in Ottoman Istanbul: The Turkish Shadow Puppet Performance Pivnick, Anitra Margot. Law and Status Among the Kiowa Indians Ritchie, William Augustus. Soil from termite mounds includes both surface soil and deeper subsoil, raised to the surface by termites.
An Exploratory Study of Squatting in Salvador Shirley, Robert Weaver. A Balance of Deaths: Revenge Feuding Among the Achuara Jivaro of the Northwest Peruvian Amazon Saenz, Candelario. Women and Unions at Yale University: An Ethnohistorical Account Santoro, Geraldine. This must be factored into any comparison with domestic horse recommendations and extrapolation be used with caution. Nature, Material, Culture, and the Volcano: The Archaeological of the Volcán Bar in Highland Chiriqu, Panamá Kapadia, Anush Darius. Artifact form and Function: Implications of Morphological Classification and Wear Pattern Analysis lindsay j meissner thesis for Cultural Interpretation Mazer, Rona. From Indian to Miner and Back Again: Small Scale Mining in the Jukumani Ayllu, Northern Potosi, Bolivia Greenhalgh, Susan. Africana ) consume a variety of plant material including grasses, leaves, twigs, fruits, barks, herbaceous material and soil ( Kabigumila, 1993 ; Dierenfeld, 2008 ). Changing Economic, and Ritual Relationship in a Modern South Indian Village Jacobson, Dorothy Ann. The Structure of Equality in a Brazilian Fishing Community LaRuffa, Anthony.
Fifty Years in Rootville: A Study in the Dynamics of Acculturation of an Italian Immigrant Group in a Rurban Community Secoy, Frank Raymond. Sisal and Social Structure in North East Brazil Hanchett, Suzanne Lorraine. Changing Traditional Medicine in Rural Swaziland: A World Systems Analysis Hirota, Janice. Eltringham, 1990 ; lindsay j meissner thesis Hoare Du Toit, 1999 ; Hoare, 2000 ). Elephant Nutritional Needs Challenges of estimating elephant nutritional requirements Due to the lack of knowledge on the digestive physiology of many wild animals, animal nutritionists use domestic species as physiologic models when designing diets for captive exotic animals. Finally, grazing status of the plant was seen to influence plant mineral levels, with increased mineral concentrations of up to 300 in grazed areas, notably sodium, phosphorus and calcium, compared to ungrazed areas supporting low animal densities ( McNaughton, 1988 ). Greyling (2004) also documented bulls to consume more plant species with a higher calcium content than adult cows at maintenance (without calves) throughout the year. Comanche Linguistic Acculuration: A Study in Ethnolinguistics Corbett, John Maxwell. Faecal phosphorus levels have been used in agriculture to estimate dietary phosphorus in livestock, and they are a more reliable index to diet quality than faecal nitrogen as they are not influenced by tannins ( Holechek., 1985 ; Wu, Satter Sojo, 2000 ).
The Costs of Marriage: Some Factors Affecting Northwest Barma Fertility Sanjek, Roger. A further example of geophagy by elephants was reported by Mwangi, Milewski Wahungu (2004) in the Aberdares National Park, central Kenya, where elephants rely on browse and unripe fruits to make up the majority of their diet due to a limited availability of grasses. Mineral concentrations in water from elephant-evacuated pits lindsay j meissner thesis were higher than in surface water, and thought to be a causative factor behind bai visitation choice. The Functional Reduction of Kinship in the Social Thought of the French Enlightment Edelman, Marc. Sharing the Dance: An Ethnography of Contact Improvisation Ross, Jane Bennett. Surface Survey of the Northern Valley of Mexico: The Classic and Post-Classic Periods. The Changing Conditions of Social Production and Reproduction Among the Kitui Kamba: Reiss, Nira.
The Tamejirt: Kinship and Social History in a Tuareg Community de Zengotita, Thomas. A Survey and Analysis of Late and Terminal Preclassic Settlement Along the Lerma River in Southesastern Guanajuato, Mexico Hahn, Hanhee. The Analysis of Settlement Pattern: Towards a Methodology of Archaeological Inference Schoepf, Brooke. Together, these observations confirm that the domestic horse may indeed provide a suitable physiologic model for mineral nutrition of elephants. The Role of Caddoan Horticulturalists in Culture History in the Great Plains Landgraf, John Leslie. Only a single reported iron deficiency anaemia related to low dietary iron intake, affecting three newly imported Asian elephants, was documented. Table 1: Macro-mineral concentrations ( dry matter) in native plants consumed by African elephants ( Loxodonta africana ) in southern and eastern Africa. White Collar Women in the Japanese Workplace Wagner, Catherine.
The Influence of Technique on Decorative Style in the Domestic Pottery of Culhuacan Carey, Henry. Brewster Bloatz "Electroluminescence" by David Charles Coffey "Surface tension and the equilibrium shape of small crystalline particles" by Gerald Estberg "The impurity in heavily doped semiconductors" by William D Fountain "The electrical resistivity of commercial nickel in the vicinity. The Southern Ute of Colorado Siegel, Morris. Lower faecal phosphorus in bulls suggests that less phosphorus was consumed in the diet, which might indicate that the requirement for bulls was lower than that of cows ( Grant, Meissner Schultheiss, 1995 ; Wrench, Meissner Grant, 1997 ). Oksapmin, Society and World View Pillsbury, Barbara Linne Kroll. Garon "Observations on a new cataclysmic variable candidate" by Maria Manuela Gomez "Neutronen" by Edouard. The Partisan's Violence, Law And Apartheid: The Assassination Of Matthew Goniwe And The Cradock Four lindsay j meissner thesis Saleh, Zainab.
Finally, savanna elephants within the Mount Elgon region, Kenya, consumed salt deposits within the Kitum caves, which are rich in a variety of minerals including calcium, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus ( Bowell, Warren Redmond, 1996 ). The Transformation of Peasants Into Consumers of Machines: Big Tractors on lindsay j meissner thesis Small Fields in a French Community Haas, Jonathan. On average, cow faecal samples contained 18 more phosphorus than bulls. During the dry season, the protein content of the grasses decreased. Form Versus Function: Lithic Use-Wear Analysis and Its Application to a Class of Levantine 1986 Ausenda, Georgio. The Cultural Implications of Upper Pleistocene and Holocene Ecology of the Santa Elena Peninsula Schaeffer, Joseph Herbert. Iodine is required for reproduction, and the high reproductive success of elephants in conservation areas such as Addo Elephant Park, which contained several boreholes, was hypothesised to be linked with an increased supply of iodine ( Milewski, 2000 ; Milewski Dierenfeld, 2012 ). Malay Peasants from Subsistence Production to Industrial Capitalism, Coastal Selangor, West Malaysia 1974-80 Stoler, Ann.
Scenarios of Statehood: Media and State Ceremonials in Kazakstan Kanaaneh, Rhoda. Bowden Wise "Modeling the solar limb effect" by Frank Edward Zink 1984 "To radiate or not to radiate? The Common Descent Group in China and its Functions Wilson, Pauline Park. Although elephants consume a vast number of different plant species, they generally receive the bulk of their diet from a few selected species which vary seasonally and geographically ( Meissner., 1990 ; Kabigumila, 1993 ). S 1 and 2) Owens, Bruce. Fields searched: titles, keywords, abstracts, inclusion/exclusion criteria: Only publications which met the following criteria were included in this review. Social Transformations, Family Life, and Uxorilocal Marriages lindsay j meissner thesis in a Hubei Village, Clemons, Eric. Secondly, migratory grazing ungulate species in the SNP were reported to make seasonal movements based on grass mineral content ( McNaughton, 1990 ). Table 1 documents sodium levels in browse species during the dry season that are lower than during the wet season, and were suggested by Holdø, Dudley McDowell (2002) to be insufficient. Hay "On first absorption peak excitation in colloidal quantum dots" by Max. Concomitants of Selective Emigration on a Caribbean Island Forman, Shepard Lewis. Sea Levels and the Archaic Archaeology of the Northeast Coast of the.S Skinner, James. Face and Verbal Analogues of Interaction in Chinese Culture: A Theory of Formalized Social Behavior Based Upon Participant-Observation of an Upper Class Chinese Household, Together with a Biographical Study of the Primary Informant 1963 Carter, William.
Routes of Remembrance: The Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Ghanan Imagination Fisher, Melissa lindsay j meissner thesis Suzanne Wang. The Spirit of the Laws in Mozambique Zitzewitz, Karin. S 1 and 2) Berger, Allen. Paracas Embroideries: A Study of Repeated Patterns Wagley, Charles. In Bella Cola, British Columbia Lele, Veerendra.
Roles in a Small Society: A Study of Mehinacu Indians (Ansley) Gregson, Ronald Edgar. S 1 and 2) Balee, William. Previous studies generally focused on one geographical area and thus results may be geographically specific depending upon surrounding mineral availability. Where feeding conditions improved and food availability increased, Guy (1975) observed elephants in Zimbabwe to reduce the total amount of time spent feeding to 5060 of overall time budget, from a greater proportion of their time budget when food resources were limited. Parables of the Market: Advertising, Middle Class, and Consumption in Post-Reform India Tomas, Antonio. Since the soils consumed also contained higher levels of sodium and iodine than surrounding soils, it is not possible to identify if minerals or clays are the driving force behind this geophagic behaviour, however, it was considered that both factors. The Cultural Ecology of Ceramic-Stage Settlement in the Atacama Sarma, Akkaraju. Building Gods Kingdom Kramer, Betty. There are a myriad of factors that contribute towards elephants movement choices including availability of food and water, opportunity for social interaction, human presence and associated activities. A geochemical survey was conducted and results of this related to observed clinical copper deficiencies in animals ( Maskall Thornton, 1996 ). The vast increase in land required from 2014 to 2050 for human population growth and agriculture will lead to a further reduction in land available for herbivores such as savanna elephants, and HEC is predicted to increase ( Nyhus, 2016 ). Reluctant Hunters Swidler, Warren. Spectral Bodies of Evidence 2018 Blickstein, Tamar.