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Therefore, any intervention that seeks to separate these waste from humans is termed sanitation. At the household and community level, the household has more productive time from the ones saved from attending the sick, more children time at school which indirectly translates to better income generation for the family or community and therefore a better living standard. Therefore, sanitation practices brings about economic development on a national scale through all the averted deaths, avoided daly losses and money saved in disease treatment that can be used efficiently in other areas of the economy. Of such targets is the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of the United Nations on sanitation which seeks to halve the population of people without adequate sanitation by 20 figures as baseline and also World Health Organisation (WHO) and United Nations. Therefore, clean drinking water is an essential product in the human body. We produce.56kg Nitrogen,.55kg Phosphorus, and.28kg Potassium per person per year from feaces and urine. Fishing) for their essays on sanitation livelihood. Lancet Infectious Diseases. Also In Asia alone, 13million tonnes of feaces are released to inland water sources each year, along with 122millionm3 of urine and 11billion3 of greywater (United Nations Water, 2008). But interventions in sanitation can help them keep healthy at all times and help them divert their resources to other critical areas, raising their economic status and reducing the gap between the rich and poor in developing countries. As stated by Ko (2011 about 15-20 of food poisoning that was caused of temperature abuse and cross contamination in Taiwan occurred at schools. Moreover, in many parts of the globe, people who supposedly have improved service mostly suffer from problems related to water quality as well as service reliability.
As a result, usaid have invested a substantial amount of funds in sanitation and water supply mainly in developing countries, which are mainly faced with the problem of unsafe water and lack of proper sanitation. Furthermore, it has played a considerable role in promoting safe hygienic practices. Another strong social benefit that comes with sanitation is community cohesion. Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of waste. Table 3 (previous page) shows the cost-benefit ration that is potentially attributed with achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target of halving the number of people without improved sanitation by 2015 to 1999 baseline figure and with achieving. The Disease Control Priorities Projects has found sanitation as the second most cost effective health intervention in the world.15 per daly (Disability Adjusted Life Year) loss averted, coming behind hygiene promotion which is.35 per daly averted. As mentioned earlier seems to be the stronger reason why they will want to have good sanitation. It can be used essays on sanitation to strike a nutrient balance in the present world where there is so much stress on our available resources.
Sourcing of funds and prioritising investment in sanitation improvement projects or infrastructure are the areas where arguments sell and allowing the government to understand the benefits that comes with sanitation improvement. It was stated at the report of World Bank about the Economic Impact. Available 2010 figures show that.6billion people, mainly in the developing countries lack access to improved sanitation.It also showed that about.2billion people lack even an unimproved sanitation facility and practice open defeacation. Proper access to drinking water and sanitation has attracted more attention because essays on sanitation it has become a major threat to the lives of many people globally. They have to stay back home during their menstruation and generally loose motivation for school attendance. According to unicef, poor sanitation, lack of clean water as well as hygiene has other adverse effects on people across the globe. From the work of Black. Eradication of open defeacation) brings a bond and a sense of belonging to the members of a community. Food establishments are the last places that may give the opportunities to control food safety. The impact and cost of water and sanitation infrastructure. In many of the developing countries, around half of the hospital beds are occupied by people with diarrhoeal diseases at any one time. Human excreta contain valuable nutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium). Other sources include solid waste and domestic wastewater.
This states that almost half of the Philippines has started to be more aware and essays on sanitation started practicing better sanitation on their personal hygiene, waste disposal and water purification. Figures from United Nations also suggest that water pollution arising from poor sanitation costs south east Asia more than US2billion per year, and in Indonesia and Vietnam creates environmental costs of more than US200million annually primarily from the loss of productive. PLoS medicine, 7(11.e1000363. Apart from feaco-oral diseases, sanitation lowers considerably the risk of childrens exposure to malnutrition and other infections that might not be directly feaco-oral but that becomes prevailent with increasing episodes of diarrhoeal. So, the health status of a community or family has a great role to play in their livelihood. When there are no toilets in school or no separate toilet for boys and girls, girls enrolment and stay in school are most affected. In addition, flies, mosquitoes, and other vectors, which normally breed in water also contribute to many illnesses and even deaths. In some developing countries, children especially girls are mostly denied their right to quality education since the school they attend lack decent and private sanitation facilities. The word sanitation comes from the Latin word sanities, which means health; and the object of sanitation is to preserve the health of a community by keeping the place where it dwells clean, and open to sunlight, fresh air and pure water. Normally, human body comprises of 70 water, and a person can die if he/she lacks water to drink due to dehydration within a very short time. Establishment of proper drainage systems and good sewerage play a vital role in eliminating breeding grounds for such vectors. In addition, a report by United Nations (UN) reveals that more than 14,000 people die every day from waterborne diseases. In other countries, women spent most of their time fetching water at the expense of other vital duties that are essential in improving their standard of living.
Heinonen-Tanski,., Pradhan,.K. Therefore sanitation stops this trend of environmental degradation and avoids the losses associated with. In public health terms, the main source of this hazard is from human and animal feaces. Even in a situation of good water supply, without sanitation in place, high risk of contamination in households still exist. With proper knowledge about sanitation a person can ensure ones condition and health. World Bank (2008) Environmental health and child survival: epidemiology, economics, experience. These health improvements indirectly translate to economic benefits. The economicand social benefits of improved sanitation. In the studies that were done by Hayashi that was done at Philippines on February 2012 discusses the lack of the sanitation utilities, the sanitation programs that was established for schools and communities and connection of poverty. While in America, students that works on food essays on sanitation establishments were tested to know their proper knowledge when it comes to food safety and it the test shows that only 39 of the students has the proper knowledge when it comes to food safety practices. This is because without proper sanitation services, clean water and hygiene, people are less productive due to constant illnesses. Geneva: World Health Organization. Lastly, sanitation includes the isolation of infectious diseases cases, and the disinfecting of houses.
This is now recognised as so important, that every town has its public health department and skilled sanitary officials to see that the streets and houses are kept in a hygienic condition. All the social factors that gets affected by the extent of sanitation practice are indirectly linked to the subject of poverty profile. Human waste gets into water courses and land from open defeacation, disposal of untreated sewer effluents into river channels and leakages from not well designed pit latrines. Org, hence the need in towns and villages of a regular system of sanitation. The main aim is to ensure that by 2015, many people across the globe will have access to basic sanitation and clean water. While in the study of Vivas. Health is wealth as it is commonly said. Human Development Report Office. . Sanitation has many benefits but one of the most important (if not the most important) is its contribution to the healthy living of a community or society. Sanitation among Third Year Students in Malayan Colleges Laguna: Input to Food Safety Program Chapter.
Proper knowledge on handling, storing and disposal are important to the daily life of a student. For example some villages residents have painted signs that read: daughters from our village are not married into villages where open defeacation is practised (Jon Lane, 2008). Conceptual Framework, synthesis, food safety and sanitation should be considered to be a subject that should be carefully looked at because lacking of information about food safety and sanitation might cause heavy damage to the person himself or to other people. Feachem.G., Bradley.J., Garelick., Mara.D. Many children lose their lives due to illness contributed by use of unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation every day across the globe. By using this technology, a three way benefit can be derived from sanitation. Engaging in good sanitation practice because of the economic gains and health benefits comes most handy in respect to the government. In addition, lack of clean drinking water and sanitation has adverse effects on poor farmers as well as wage earners. The study of Yarrow that was done on the year 2006 was similar to the study because of their respondents. Many of these deaths are under five children in developing countries. According to statistics, diarrhea kills about 2 million people globally every year, with the majority being children especially those below the age of 5 years (McMann, 2011).
Even though health seems to be the strongest point for the spread and campaign of sanitation practices, it is not always the main reason why people want to have clean and hygienic way of practicing sanitation. Furthermore, water can be treated in order to eliminate bacteria that are found in tainted water. Also studies in Alwar district of India shows that sanitation increased girls school enrolment by one-third and improved academic performance for boys and girls by a quarter. Then streets have to be kept regularly swept, and people compelled to remove all rubbish and dirt from their premises. Inculcating information and an informative program that focuses on food awareness and sanitation can let the students foresee the possibilities of their lack of awareness and practices. Level of Awareness and Practices on Food Safety and. Black R, Cousens S, Johnson H, Lawn J, Rudan I,. Which must be buried deep in the earth at a distance, or, better still, burnt in incinerators. Related Category : Free Essays, Health. Mathers CD, Lopez AD, Murray CJL (2006) The burden of disease and mortality by condition: data, methods, and results for 2001. The research that will the first study that would be focusing in the food safety and sanitation practices of the students in the given location.
(2006) Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd. Available at: m/2071-1050/2/1/341/ Accessed June 2, 2011. Sanitation has to be performed by food handlers but also to other individuals including the customers. This is a major for people using streams as their primary water source and economic risk for people that depends on aquatic life (e.g. The popular F diagram (Figure 1 overleaf) showing transmission routes of feaco-oral diseases clearly shows also how sanitation could substantially reduce the spread of diseases. Figure 1: Feaco-oral diseases transmission routes and interventions to stop them Source: Feachem. Sanitation or sanitation interventions could be in form of hardware.g. Access to clean water and good sanitation has been a major problem especially in developing countries. Dirt and darkness are the parents of disease; and if people live in filth, they are liable to such epidemics as cholera, enteric and plague.
Going by the fact that conventional mineral fertiliser are mainly of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium constituents, farmers in developing countries can use the nutrients in excreta to enhance agricultural output at lower costs. It has also been said in the study that only few things used in cooking are kept clean and mostly are not sanitized, and those things that are not sanitized are the ones that can have direct contact to raw ingredients like meats. Table 3: Economic benefits resulting from meeting the MDG sanitation target and from achieving universal sanitation access. The paper also studies various initiatives that have been introduced by various humanitarian bodies with the aim of promoting supply of clean drinking water and establishment of proper sanitation services. According to statistics, many people across the globe have limited access to clean drinking water and clean water for other domestic uses. Water and sanitation to reduce child mortality. All wash (water, sanitation and hygiene) programmes initiated by unicef are aimed at attaining Millennium Development Goal for sanitation and water. In the developing world, roughly 90 of sewage is discharged untreated into rivers, polluting waters and killing plants and fishes (United Nations Water, 2008). Poor people tend to be the ones that are not able to access good sanitation hardwares. Advertisements: Kashmir, for example, is one of the most beautiful countries in the world, with a fine climate, a fertile soil, and a beautiful river; yet the population of that earthly paradise is decimated every few years by epidemics of cholera. Because of the dirty habits of its people, who turn their splendid river into an open sewer by throwing into it all the filth of their villages and then drink its poisoned waters. Women and young ladies alike are the ones that bear most, the risk of assault and in some cases rape when seeking privacy in the dark at night to defeacate.
Fewtrell L, Kaufmann RB, Kay D, Enanoria W, Haller L,. In addition, many people have limited access to good sanitation across the globe. This has resulted to diminished opportunities for many people and impoverishment. As a result of serious problems associated with lack of clean water and improved sanitation, unicef has played a very critical role in essays on sanitation improving sanitation facilities and water supplies in communities and schools in about 90 countries in which it operates. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. Ingredients may be contaminated when purchased from inspected and approved sources, so it is necessary to know how to handle ingredients safely and prepare food in ways that reduces the chance of contaminated foods being seemed to clients. (2005) Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Similar to the study of Hayashi, World Bank also created a study at several developing countries like Vietnam, Philippines and Laos. Women are the ones that care for children and bear the highest risk of direct contact with faeces. In :Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR,. The ranges of practices include Arboloos (where a tree is planted on the latrine pit in succession Urine diverting latrines (that produces fertilisers from urine and composted feaces) and Biogas toilets (that produces methane from anaerobic digestion of feaces). Globally, one in four girls do not complete primary school compared to one in seven boys (Jon lane, 2008).
This essay shall describe the benefits that comes with sanitation in developing countries with references to buttress the importance of achieving this targets and what is at stake to be gained. These benefits are summarised in table 2 below. This means a one dollar investment on sanitation could bring up to ten dollars worth of economic return gained from the productive work of not being sick. It discusses the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of the college students towards the food safety and sanitation practices. Their initiative has been successful in many countries because unicef essays on sanitation works closely with communities, families, like-minded organizations as well as governments. Lack or proper sanitation have mainly been characterized with worldwide shortfalls in indispensable access to a hygienic toilet, and deficient service provision and household standards (Bourne, 1994).
For not only are the germs which cause disease invisible, but they breed and multiply only in darkness hidden in decaying vegetation, putrefying animal matter, human and animal excrement, and dark pools of foul and stagnant water. This deprives them of their major asset physical health and ability to work thereby making their situation worse. Jakarta: World Bank and Water Sanitation Program Hutton G, Haller L, Bartram J (2007) Economic and health effects of increasing coverage of lowcost household drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to countries off-track to meet MDG target. Eventhough studies carried out has not rigorously separated the specific effect of sanitation from the overall effect of water and sanitation intervention, systematic reviews has suggested that improved sanitation can reduce the rates of diarrhoeal diseases by 32 37 (Fewtrell. Home, essay on Sanitation. (2010 diarrhoeal was the leading cause of death among children under five years of age in sub-saharan Africa, resulting in 19 of all deaths in this age group. Progress on sanitation and drinking water 2010 update. Therefore the social benefits that come with good sanitation practice too are enormous and very important in maintaining a good social stratification and integrity within a community. These targets underscores the importance of sanitation among human population and is geared at creating awareness through all levels of government to the burden that lack of sanitation poses to the people. The act and practice of collectively keeping streets and the environment clean (environmental sanitation ) and also, the joint effort communities put in improving their sanitation practice (e.g. Hygienic latrines or software in form of hygiene practice such as handwashing with soap. Sanitation practices assist in environmental sustainability. Table 2: Economic benefits arising from water and sanitation improvements Source: Hutton G, Haller L, Bartram J (2007) The prevention of sanitation and water related diseases could save some 7billion per year in health system costs and an additional.
Insufficient access to safe and clean drinking water, poor hygiene practices and sanitation services has been the major causes of high deaths and sickness among children. The study focuses essays on sanitation on the food safety and sanitation practices and knowledge of the third year students of Malayan Colleges Laguna that will be used to be become a ladder to create a program that will be focusing in food safety and sanitation practices. All these statistics and figures show the potential economic gains that is set to be derived or gained through sanitation practices. The customers always expect that their food will taste good and would not make them sick. As fresh air is as important as pure water, new towns are laid out with broad streets and open spaces, and the houses so constructed as to have plenty of air and light. Sanitation in the Philippines (2008 that somewhere 72 of the whole population of the Philippines has started to migrate to a improve sanitation in 2004. The sanitation practices are a great contributor when it comes to lessening the diseases and illnesses that is commonly experienced in society. Giving important details to the students and providing examples on why sanitation is important lessen the ignorance of not only the students but also their parents about the sanitation issues. Poor access to clean water and sanitation contributed to many deaths mainly because of illnesses that are caused by contaminated water.
For a long time, access to clean water and sanitation has been a very big challenge in the globe. Global Assessment of water supply and sanitation. These places may be the last stage that hazards can be eliminated that could be the reasons for the food contamination to occur. Advertisements: But it is very difficult to alter old towns, with their narrow and dark streets, essays on sanitation badly built and stuffy houses. In the absence of adequate sanitation, women and girls are usually the most affected.
(McArthur, 2007) Students can be the victim of food borne illnesses but students can also essays on sanitation be the cause. Other needs to have a good sanitation practice may include: privacy, safety, comfort, cleanliness and respect (Jeff Conant, 2005). According to WHO (World Health Organization about.3 of all deaths experienced in the globe are caused by limited access to clean drinking water, proper sanitation and hygiene services and water management practices, which are vital in reducing the spread of waterborne. According to Hayashi (2012 the schools in the Philippines started teaching sanitation practices in two methods: practical method and theoretical method. Food sanitation refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety.
Pendo, Stephen, Raymond Chandler on Screen: His Novels into Film. Applicants must be lawyers, nurses, licensed clinical counselors, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, speech pathologists or teachers. Candidates must be citizens of the United States and residents of Arizona for at least one year. Essays on sanitation and what is a good thesis statement for the odyssey. Introduction to Environmental, sanitation : Once we can secure access to clean water and to adequate sanitation facilities for all people, irrespective of the difference in their living conditions, a huge battle against all kinds of diseases will be won. Copyright Renewals, 1956 July - December (English) (as Author).S. tags: Dostoevsky Crime and Punishment Free Essays 772 words (2.2 pages) Preview - Assignment: It is said that of all the characters in the novel, Dostoyevsky dislikes only one, Luzhin. English) Volume 1 (Chinese) (as Author) The Chinese Classics: with a translation, critical and exegetical notes, prolegomena and copious indexes (Shih ching. tags: Crime and Punishment Essays Strong Essays 1045 words (3 pages) Preview - In Fyodor Dostoevskys drama, Crime and Punishment Rodion Romanovich Raskonlnikov exclaims, I didnt kill a human being, but a principle! Copyright Renewals, 1966 July - December (English) (as Author).S. Raskolnikov goes into a delirious state from the guilt of his actions.
Check a new way to make drinking water from poop in our essay on sanitation. Punch" (English) John Leech's Pictures of Life and Character, Volume 2 (of 3) From the Collection of "Mr. Elliot Gould stars, though Leigh (The Big Sleep) Brackett's script is the real draw here. Or how I feel about. But the film, only recently made widely available, while slight, is a pleasant essays on sanitation surprise. The Bible speaks of the pestilence that walketh in darkness; and pestilence is always a thing of darkness, in a double sense. They provide support, encouragement, guidance, and sometimes just plain common sense. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, Paternoster Row, London (English) (as Author) Long, Margaret Gabrielle Vere Campbell See: Bowen, Marjorie, James's Account.
tags: Crime and Punishment Essays Better Essays 652 words (1.9 pages) Preview - Research Paper Capital punishment is punishment for a crime by death, which is frequently referred to as the death penalty. Volume 06 (English) (as Author) What Will He Do with It? Speir, Jerry, Raymond Chandler. After eavesdropping Continue Reading essays on sanitation 3715 Words 15 Pages missed his chance. In this brief volume, culled from numerous essays over the years, one of America's leading Marxist literary critics takes on Chandler yet again, arguing that his work "reconstructs both the context in which it was written and the social world. In the case of Raskolnikov, Dostoevsky uses a complex and intriguing character to portray the eternal message and power of faith. According to statistics, many people across the globe have limited access to clean drinking water and clean water for other domestic uses). Tap into the key elements of your circumstances and use them to craft the perfect essay. 1: Luther on the Creation (English) (as Author) Commentary on Genesis, Vol.
The first Marlowe novel, The Big Sleep, uses "The Curtain" and "Killer in the Rain." Farewell, My Lovely uses "The Man Who Liked Dogs "Try the Girl and "Mandarin's Jade." The Lady in the Lake uses "Bay City Blues. Thompson, Charles Singer,. Return to Top m Scholarship Amount: 250 Description: This scholarship is for nursing students with disabilities who are seeking full-time degrees. China for those who committed brutal crimes, such as murder. The car as the infinitive to cook is a much less frequently first person plural imperative. Sanitation Essay, for a long time, access to clean water and sanitation has been a very big challenge in the globe. Environmental sanitation the control o environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. This punishment is not just going to prison but psychological punishment too. For not only are the germs which cause disease invisible, but they breed and multiply only in darkness hidden in decaying vegetation, putrefying animal matter, human and animal excrement, and dark pools. Several characters that society respects for their position are shown to have little virtue, while others that are shunned are illustrated to be virtuous human beings. Buy the DVD (1973, United Artists) Based on the novel by Raymond Chandler Screenplay by Leigh Brackett Directed by Robert Altman Starring Elliot Gould as philip marlowe Robert Altman's quirky, rabble-rousing 1973 revisionist ode to Chandler and Marlowe. This scholarship essay prompt is the opposite of the one above.